Access Statistics for Anna Jacobson Schwartz

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Working Paper File Downloads Abstract Views
Last month 3 months 12 months Total Last month 3 months 12 months Total
A brief empirical history of U.S. foreign-exchange intervention: 1973-1995 0 0 0 88 0 2 4 207
Asset Price Inflation and Monetary Policy 1 1 2 761 1 2 13 1,796
Bretton Woods and the U.S. decision to intervene in the foreign-exchange market, 1957-1962 0 0 2 63 0 0 6 170
Bretton Woods, swap lines, and the Federal Reserve’s return to intervention 0 0 6 93 2 4 18 135
Charles Goodhart's Contributions to the History of Monetary Institutions 0 0 0 462 1 6 18 2,140
Could Stable Money Have Averted The Great Contraction? 1 1 1 76 1 2 7 419
David Laidler on Monetarism 0 0 2 257 0 2 14 812
Epilogue: Foreign-Exchange-Market Operations in the Twenty-First Century 0 0 1 73 0 1 8 219
Epilogue: foreign-exchange-market operations in the twenty-first century 0 0 1 54 1 1 7 197
From Obscurity to Notoriety: A Biography of the Exchange Stabilization Fund 0 0 0 44 2 3 11 235
From the Exchange Stabilization Fund to the International Monetary Fund 0 0 1 145 1 2 7 685
IS-LM and Monetarism 0 0 4 617 0 1 16 2,111
Measuring Real Economic Effects of Bailouts: Historical Perspectives on How Countries in Financial Distress Have Fared With and Without Bailouts 1 1 1 306 3 11 23 1,079
Monetary Policy Regimes and Economic Performance: The Historical Record 0 1 9 562 2 7 35 1,768
Money Growth Variability and Money Supply Interdependence Under InterestRate Control: Some Evidence For Canada 0 0 0 32 0 1 1 230
Money Stock Targeting, Base Drift and Price-Level Predictability: Lessons From the U.K. Experience 0 0 0 44 1 4 8 596
Money and Prices in the Nineteenth Century: Was Thomas Tooke Right? 0 0 0 94 1 3 6 279
Money versus Credit Rationing: Evidence for the National Banking Era, 1880-1914 0 0 0 33 0 2 5 186
On the evolution of U.S. foreign-exchange-market intervention: thesis, theory, and institutions 0 0 1 73 0 2 12 336
Real Versus Pseudo-International Systemic Risk: Some Lessons from History 0 1 2 397 0 2 14 1,538
Shadow Open Market Committee; Policy Statement and Position Papers 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 614
The ECU - An Imaginary or Embryonic Form of Money: What Can We Learn from History? 0 0 0 23 1 1 4 203
The Evolution of Wage and Employment in the Israeli Economy 1986-1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 173
The Evolution of the Federal Reserve Swap Lines since 1962 0 0 2 68 1 3 8 50
The Evolution of the Federal Reserve Swap Lines since 1962 0 0 2 61 1 6 15 97
The Federal Reserve as an Informed Foreign Exchange Trader: 1973 - 1995 0 0 0 33 0 3 5 94
The Federal Reserve as an informed foreign-exchange trader: 1973-1995 0 0 0 61 1 3 9 173
The Historical Origins of U.S. Exchange Market Intervention Policy 0 0 1 73 0 1 8 320
The Impact of Milton Friedman on Modern Monetary Economics: Setting the Record Straight on Paul Krugman's "Who Was Milton Friedman?" 1 1 2 378 2 7 21 1,154
The Interrelation of Wage Series of Firms to Each Other Land and to the Series of their Employment Level. Facts from Microdata 0 0 0 0 2 2 8 254
The Interrelation of the Time Series of Wage and Employment at the Firm Level, Common Features and Contracts 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 104
The Rise and Fall of Foreign Exchange Market Intervention 1 1 3 358 1 1 5 1,145
The Specie Standard As A Contingent Rule: Some Evidence for Core and Peripheral Countries, 1880-90 0 0 3 62 1 1 12 300
The Specie Standard as a Contingent Rule: Some Evidence for Core and Peripheral Countries, 1880-1990 0 0 3 47 1 2 24 321
The effects of regulation on systemic risks 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 36
The impact of Milton Friedman on modern monetary economics: setting the record straight on Paul Krugman’s 'Who Was Milton Friedman? 0 0 1 275 1 3 15 852
U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention and the Early Dollar Float: 1973 - 1981 0 0 0 37 0 2 6 70
U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention during the Volcker-Greenspan Era 0 0 2 17 0 0 4 84
U.S. Intervention During the Bretton Woods Era: 1962-1973 0 0 3 69 0 2 10 88
U.S. foreign-exchange-market intervention during the Volcker-Greenspan era 0 0 0 47 0 3 6 97
U.S. intervention and the early dollar float: 1973-1981 0 0 0 45 0 2 3 43
U.S. intervention during the Bretton Wood Era:1962-1973 0 0 3 80 0 1 14 180
U.S. monetary-policy evolution and U.S. intervention 0 0 1 109 0 0 3 88
Under What Circumstances, Past and Present, Have International Rescues of Countries in Financial Distress Been Successful? 0 0 0 80 0 1 22 546
Was Expansionary Monetary Policy Feasible During the Great Contraction? An Examination of the Gold Standard Constraint 0 0 1 359 0 0 4 3,426
What has Foreign Market Intervention Since the Plaza Agreement Accomplished? 0 0 0 74 1 1 5 366
Why Clashes Between Internal and External Stability Goals End in Currency Crises, 1797-1994 0 0 0 113 1 2 13 373
Total Working Papers 5 7 60 6,743 30 108 479 26,389


Journal Article File Downloads Abstract Views
Last month 3 months 12 months Total Last month 3 months 12 months Total
Aftermath of the monetarist clash with the federal reserve before and during the Volcker era 0 0 1 12 0 0 3 61
Alternative Approaches to Analyzing Economic Data 2 2 4 342 2 3 10 936
An Attempt at Synthesis in American Banking History1 0 0 1 3 0 0 3 12
Assessing the Euro three years after its launch 0 0 0 115 0 1 2 376
Asset price inflation and monetary policy 0 0 2 31 3 5 13 154
Book Review: The Political Economy of American Monetary Policy 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 29
Clark Warburton: Pioneer monetarist 0 0 0 9 0 1 3 108
Comment on: Historical monetary policy analysis and the Taylor rule 0 0 0 27 0 0 0 98
Consumers' Expenditure in the United Kingdom, 1900–1919. By A. R. Prest assisted by A. A. Adams. (Studies in the National Income and Expenditure of the United Kingdom, No. 3.) New York: Cambridge University Press, 1954. Pp. xiii, 195. $7.50 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 29
Could Stable Money Have Averted the Great Contraction? 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 324
Currency boards: their past, present, and possible future role 0 0 3 392 0 1 7 856
Dangers in Bailing Out Countries That Are in Default by the International Monetary Fund or Others 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 6
Dealing with Exchange Rate Protectionism 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 32
Do Sovereign Debtors Need a Bankruptcy Law? 0 0 1 6 0 0 6 35
From Obscurity to Notoriety: A Biography of the Exchange Stabilization Fund 0 0 0 0 3 6 14 233
General and Miscellaneous - The Gold Standard in Theory and History. Edited by Barry Eichengreen. New York: Methuen, 1985. Pp. vi, 280. $11.95 paper 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 27
Global Order and the Future of the Euro 0 0 1 5 0 0 3 30
Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System. By Barry Eichengreen. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. Pp. vii, 223. $24.95 0 0 2 30 0 0 6 88
Has government any role in money? 1 1 7 501 2 3 28 1,011
Has the Growth of Money Substitutes Hindered Monetary Policy? 0 0 1 24 0 0 3 94
History of Mutual Savings Banks in Northampton, Massachusetts. By Katherine Finney. New York: King's Crown Press, 1945. Pp. x, 225. $2.50 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 19
IS-LM and Monetarism 2 3 6 36 4 16 44 219
Inflation and output changes in France, Italy, and the Netherlands: A comment 0 0 0 8 0 0 2 33
International Debts: What's Fact and What's Fiction 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 184
International Financial Crises: Myths and Realities 0 0 1 5 0 0 7 30
International Monetary Cooperation since Bretton Woods. By Harold James. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, and New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Pp. xvi, 742. $45.00 0 0 1 20 0 0 3 78
Interrelations between the United States and the United Kingdom, 1873-1975 0 0 0 45 0 1 4 171
Is There a Need for an International Lender of Last Resort? 1 1 3 7 1 1 7 42
Measuring real economic effects of bailouts: historical perspectives on how countries in financial distress have fared with and without bailouts 0 0 2 159 1 3 18 814
Monetary Policy and the Legacy of Milton Friedman 0 0 2 10 0 0 5 43
Monetary Trends in the United States and the United Kingdom, 1878–1970: Selected Findings 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 29
Monetary economic research at the St. Louis Fed during Ted Balbach's tenure as research director 0 0 0 13 0 0 4 96
Money and Prices in the Nineteenth Century: An Old Debate Rejoined 0 0 0 6 0 0 2 26
Money and prices in the 19th century: Was Thomas Tooke right? 0 0 0 47 2 2 7 479
Money stock targeting, base drift, and price-level predictability: Lessons from the U.K. Experience 0 0 0 15 1 3 24 243
Origins of the Financial Market Crisis of 2008 2 3 14 85 4 8 43 215
PROSPECTS OF AN INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM CONSTITUTION 0 0 0 13 0 0 3 45
Portrait 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 4
Real versus Pseudo-International Systemic Risk Some Lessons from History 0 0 1 2 1 2 9 26
Reflections on the Gold Commission Report 0 0 0 56 0 0 1 262
Rejoinder to Paul Krugman 0 0 3 74 0 1 10 230
Remembering Milton Friedman 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 26
Risks to the long-term stability of the euro 0 0 1 52 0 0 8 278
Schwartz on Friedman 0 0 1 20 0 1 8 307
Secular Price Change in Historical Perspective 0 1 1 53 0 2 9 188
The Aliber, Dewald, and Gordon Papers: A Comment 0 0 0 7 0 0 2 60
The Beginning of Competitive Banking in Philadelphia, 1782-1809 0 0 1 36 0 0 4 145
The Behavior of Money Stock under Interest Rate Control: Some Evidence for Canada 0 0 0 15 0 0 2 125
The Definition of Money: Net Wealth and Neutrality as Criteria 1 1 3 633 4 4 13 2,990
The Effect of the Term Structure of Interest Rates on the Demand for Money in the United States 0 0 0 114 1 1 5 334
The Evolution of the Federal Reserve Swap Lines since 1962 0 1 4 28 2 4 26 139
The Federal Reserve as an Informed Foreign Exchange Trader: 1973–1995 0 0 0 14 1 2 5 180
The Golden Age of the Quantity Theory, by David Laidler. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1991. Pp. xv, 220. ISBN 0-691-04295-0 0 0 0 24 0 1 2 53
The Golden Constant: The English and American Experience, 1560–1976. By Roy W. Jastram. New York: John Wiley, 1977. Pp. xvii, 231; tables and charts 0 1 3 20 0 1 8 56
The Importance of Stable Money: Theory and Evidence 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 27
The Jacksonian Economy. By Peter Temin. (The Norton Essays in American History. Edited by Harold M. Hyman.) New York: W. W. Norton, 1969. Pp. 208. $5.50 (cloth); $1.95 (paperback) 0 1 1 23 0 1 6 97
The National Bank Note Puzzle Reinterpreted 0 0 1 21 0 0 5 222
The Performance and Stability of Banking Systems under "Self-Regulation": Theory and Evidence 0 0 3 8 0 1 9 47
The Rise and Fall of Foreign Exchange Market Intervention as a Policy Tool 0 0 0 28 0 0 1 97
The Role of Monetary Policy in the Face of Crises 0 0 3 6 0 0 5 32
The banking crisis of 1993: Susan Estabrook Kennedy, (University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 1973) 270 pp 0 0 0 52 1 1 6 229
The failure of the bank of United States: A reappraisal: A reply 0 2 4 86 1 4 16 234
The historical origins of US exchange market intervention policy 0 0 2 39 1 2 15 203
The impact of Milton Friedman on modern monetary economics: Setting the record straight on Paul Krugman's "Who was Milton Friedman?" 0 0 3 194 0 7 25 1,362
The misuse of the Fed's discount window 0 0 1 107 1 7 16 436
Transmission of Real and Monetary Disturbances under Fixed and Floating Rates 0 0 1 8 0 0 6 44
US Foreign Exchange Market Intervention since 1962 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 201
Under what circumstances, past and present, have international rescues of countries in financial distress been successful? 0 0 5 30 0 1 99 476
Was Expansionary Monetary Policy Feasible during the Great Contraction? An Examination of the Gold Standard Constraint 1 2 3 91 2 5 20 566
What has foreign exchange market intervention since the Plaza Agreement accomplished? 0 0 0 35 2 2 9 130
Why A Monetary History Has Had a Long Life 0 0 2 7 0 1 7 32
Why a Dual Mandate is Wrong for Monetary Policy 2 2 6 67 2 2 11 164
Why clashes between internal and external stability goals end in currency crises, 1797–1994 0 0 0 33 2 3 16 158
Total Journal Articles 12 21 107 3,967 44 111 708 17,465


Book File Downloads Abstract Views
Last month 3 months 12 months Total Last month 3 months 12 months Total
A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960 0 0 0 0 43 88 442 3,548
A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821-1931 0 0 0 0 3 9 52 659
Currency Held by the Public, the Banks, and the Treasury, Monthly, December 1917–December 1944 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 115
From New Deal Banking Reform to World War II Inflation 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 159
Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods 0 0 0 0 1 4 42 1,086
Monetary Trends in the United States and United Kingdom: Their Relation to Income, Prices, and Interest Rates, 1867–1975 0 0 0 0 4 7 50 1,044
Monetary Trends in the United States and the United Kingdom 0 0 0 0 3 5 20 372
Money in Historical Perspective 0 0 0 0 1 3 16 69
Money in Historical Perspective 0 0 0 0 13 21 120 524
Strained Relations 0 0 0 0 1 4 9 44
Strained Relations: U.S. Foreign-Exchange Operations and Monetary Policy in the Twentieth Century 0 0 0 0 2 3 16 98
The Great Contraction, 1929–33 0 0 0 0 16 29 251 1,240
The International Transmission of Inflation 0 0 0 0 2 5 19 63
The International Transmission of Inflation 0 0 0 0 3 3 54 272
Total Books 0 0 0 0 92 182 1,103 9,293


Chapter File Downloads Abstract Views
Last month 3 months 12 months Total Last month 3 months 12 months Total
A Century of British Market Interest Rates, 1874–1975 0 0 1 11 1 1 6 47
A Priori Approaches 0 0 1 28 0 1 6 84
Alternative Monetary Regimes: The Gold Standard 0 0 0 42 0 1 3 223
Alternative Policies 1 1 8 59 1 1 21 111
Annual, Semiannual, and Quarterly Estimates, 1867-1907 0 0 0 14 0 0 3 82
Appendices, Currency Held by the Public, the Banks, and the Treasury, Monthly, December 1917–December 1944 1 1 1 4 1 1 3 47
Appendix 1: Summaries of Bank of England Documents 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2
Appendix 2: Empirical Method for Assessing Success Counts 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
Appendix: Publications of Anna J. Schwartz 0 0 0 3 0 1 3 90
Bank Failures 0 1 16 103 0 3 25 180
Basis for Our Choice of Definition 0 0 1 16 0 1 6 85
Charles Goodhart's contributions to the history of monetary institutions 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 24
Clark Warburton: Pioneer Monetarist 0 1 1 29 0 1 4 177
Comparison of Earlier Estimates With Our Own 0 0 0 7 0 0 5 48
Conclusion on Definition 0 0 0 17 0 1 9 111
Currency Held by the Public: Call Date and Monthly Estimates 0 0 0 12 0 0 6 70
Cyclical Changes, 1933–41 0 0 0 22 0 0 4 64
Definitions 0 0 1 8 1 2 15 73
Deposits and Commercial Banks: Call Dates 0 0 0 9 0 0 5 81
Deposits and Commercial Banks: Monthly Estimates 0 0 0 10 0 1 4 69
Deposits at Mutual Savings Banks: Call Date and Monthly Estimates 0 0 0 7 0 0 5 62
Deposits with the Postal Savings System 0 0 0 14 0 1 6 110
Derivation of the Series 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 32
Development of Monetary Policy 2 2 9 89 2 3 15 154
Division of Change in Income between Prices and Output 0 0 0 36 1 1 4 90
Epilogue: Foreign-Exchange-Market Operations in the Twenty-First Century 1 1 1 1 1 2 9 15
Estimates for the Period Before 1867 0 0 0 13 1 3 8 61
Estimates for the Period Since 1867 0 0 0 17 0 0 5 73
Exchange Market Policy in the United States: Precedents and Antecedents 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 4
Factors Accounting for Changes in the Stock of Money 0 0 13 87 0 3 25 174
From Gibson to Fisher 0 0 1 24 0 2 9 90
Front matter, Strained Relations: U.S. Foreign-Exchange Operations and Monetary Policy in the Twentieth Century 0 0 0 8 0 1 4 35
General Features of Our Estimates 0 0 0 4 0 2 7 36
Glossary, Sources, Indexes 0 0 5 27 0 2 16 79
Gross Dividend and Interest Payments by Corporations at Selected Dates in the 19th Century 0 0 0 1 0 5 11 34
Has Government Any Role in Money? 0 0 6 257 0 0 8 609
Has the Growth of Money Substitutes Hindered Monetary Policy? 0 0 0 11 0 0 5 45
How Feasible Is a Flexible Monetary Policy? 0 0 0 15 0 3 7 105
International Character of the Contraction 0 0 6 58 0 3 15 129
Introducing the Exchange Stabilization Fund, 1934–1961 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 5
Introduction to "A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821-1931" 0 0 7 74 0 1 14 178
Introduction to "Monetary Statistics of the United States: Estimates, Sources, Methods" 0 1 4 86 1 3 9 209
Introduction to "The Great Contraction, 1929–33" 4 8 51 285 5 12 100 496
Lessons from the Evolution of U.S. Monetary and Intervention Policies 1 1 2 2 1 2 7 7
Lessons of the Gold Standard Era and the Bretton Woods System for the Prospects of an International Monetary System Constitution 0 0 0 34 1 4 9 128
Long Swings in Growth Rates 0 0 1 24 0 0 7 70
Monetary Influences on Nominal Income 1 1 1 37 1 2 5 100
Monetary policy regimes and economic performance: The historical record 0 2 8 499 15 29 117 1,647
Money and Business Cycles 0 0 9 252 1 3 30 658
Money and Business Cycles 0 0 1 32 2 5 13 118
Money and Interest Rates 0 0 3 80 2 2 9 146
Money versus Credit Rationing: Evidence for the National Banking Era, 1880-1914 0 0 0 17 1 1 3 73
Movements of Money, Income, and Prices 1 1 2 63 1 1 5 124
New Deal Changes in the Banking Structure and Monetary Standard 0 0 1 26 0 1 9 101
Notes, References, Index 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3
On the Evolution of U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention: Thesis, Theory, and Institutions 0 0 1 2 3 5 9 27
Part One: Definition of Money, Introduction 0 0 3 67 0 4 17 195
Part Three: Derivation of Our Estimates, Introduction 0 0 0 7 0 0 4 44
Part Two: Earlier Estimates, Introduction 0 0 0 9 1 2 7 60
Principal Empirical Findings 0 0 8 65 0 0 13 139
Prior Usage 0 0 1 20 0 5 10 113
Real and Pseudo-Financial Crises 1 4 7 257 5 14 40 529
References 0 0 0 19 0 0 6 62
References 0 0 0 3 0 0 4 24
Reflections on the Gold Commission Report 0 0 0 25 0 1 2 98
Scope of the Study 0 0 1 23 2 4 26 155
Secular Price Change in Historical Perspective 1 3 4 26 2 7 16 84
Significance of Fluctuations in Currency Holdings 0 0 0 3 0 1 3 40
Sources and Accuracy of Basic Data 0 0 1 14 1 1 8 74
The Basic Data 1 1 2 39 1 4 10 91
The Beginning of Competitive Banking in Philadelphia, 1782–1809 0 0 1 31 0 5 14 120
The Course of Money, Income, Prices, Velocity, and Interest Rates 1 4 25 144 2 6 41 239
The General Statistical Framework 0 0 0 25 0 2 7 78
The General Theoretical Framework 0 0 0 53 0 1 8 157
The Importance of Stable Money: Theory and Evidence 0 0 0 11 0 0 4 66
The Postwar Institutional Evolution of the International Monetary System 1 1 1 11 1 1 3 49
The Postwar Institutional Evolution of the International Monetary System 0 0 1 4 0 1 8 48
The Role of Money 0 0 1 97 7 8 18 206
U.S. Foreign-Exchange-Market Intervention during the Volcker-Greenspan Era, 1981–1997 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 4
U.S. Intervention and the Early Dollar Float, 1973–1981 0 0 0 2 0 2 3 13
U.S. Intervention during the Bretton Woods Era, 1962–1973 1 1 3 3 1 1 5 6
Understanding 1929–1933 1 1 2 51 3 4 9 101
United States Government Balances 0 0 0 7 0 1 6 62
Velocity and the Demand for Money 0 0 1 72 0 1 5 216
Velocity and the Interrelations between the United States and the United Kingdom 0 0 0 23 1 1 8 73
Why Money Matters 0 0 1 18 0 1 8 37
Why Was Monetary Policy So Inept? 3 3 17 101 3 4 31 188
World War II Inflation, September 1939–August 1948 0 1 2 36 0 2 8 169
Total Chapters 22 40 244 3,846 73 207 1,013 11,239


Statistics updated 2020-11-03